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Voron 2.4 3D Printer Review

9/10

The Voron 2.4 is touted as the ultimate general-purpose large format 3D printer, and it largely lives up to that reputation. We were very impressed by its remarkable speed and print quality, effectively securing a top spot among all the FDM printers we’ve examined. It also proudly boasts the finest automatic bed leveling in its class! However, the Voron 2.4 is held back from mass market appeal by its $1,000+ price tag, the absence of a readily accessible kit, and the demand for expert know-how to construct it.

9/10

Manufacturer: Voron

The Pros
The Cons
Picture of Paul Chow
Paul Chow

Co-Founder & CTO

Amazon.com Disclosure: As Amazon Associates, we earn from qualifying purchases.

The Voron 2 printer was designed to be a large, no-compromise, high-performance CoreXY 3D printer. Merging a plethora of cutting-edge features from various advanced 3D printers, the Voron 2 presents an appealing and enclosed design with the ambition to establish itself as one of the top-tier options among 3D printers available today.

Since its inception in 2018, the Voron 2 has undergone various iterations to enhance its user-friendliness and assembly process, driven by the collaborative efforts of its community. The latest version is the Voron 2.4 CoreXY 3D Printer Kit, whose plastic components were designed to reduce plastic usage and improve ease of assembly. In late 2020, several AliExpress vendors produced assembly kits for the Voron 2, making it easier for hobbyists to build their own printers. However, the Voron design team has made it known that they are in no way affiliated with these vendors and that users should buy these kits at their own risk as their quality has not been vetted.

In our quest to build our own Voron, we took the risk and bought a kit from AliExpress for this in-depth Voron 2.4 3D printer review. We will be taking a deep dive into its strengths and weaknesses to determine whether its claims of being a top-tier all-purpose 3D printer are true.

In the realm of high-performance CoreXY printers, the Voron 2 is a contender in competition with models like the BLV Cube, Railcore IIZL, Raise3D Pro 2, and Ratrig 3. Positioned within the price range of $1,500 to $2,000, depending on where the user sources their components, the Voron 2.4 stands at the higher end of the spectrum for premium 3D printers that cater to both enthusiasts and professionals.

Table of Contents

Key Features To Look For In A Great 3D Printer

When looking for a great 3D printer, one of the things you need to look out for is the ease of setup. If you’re an experienced 3D printer enthusiast, the Voron 2.4 won’t intimidate you. However, if you’re new to 3D printing, this might not be your ideal choice. We rated its setup a 4/10 for setup since it arrives in a fully do-it-yourself kit, demanding considerable knowledge of electrical and mechanical components to build.

While the Voron 2.4 comes with a massive, 100-page, detailed manual, it’s still very intimidating. We even had to find secondary help with assembly.

If you can make it past the assembly and your main priority is print quality, know that the Voron 2.4 has the best quality printing we’ve seen, hands down. In our tests featuring a Mandalorian figure and calibration cube, the Voron 2.4 showcased remarkable printing quality. Both objects displayed impeccable detailing, and the presence of anti-ringing technology in its Klipper firmware contributed to minimal ghosting.

Already, you can tell this printer is fantastic. However, we want to remain picky due to its price and assembly. 

That said, the next thing you should look for is print speed. Thankfully, the Voron 2.4 delivers exceptional speed, clocking in at an impressive 120mm/s. In our hands-on tests, the Voron 2.4 had 0 issues maintaining quality even at these ludicrous speeds.

Another factor to take into consideration is noise levels. While you obviously need to ensure you have proper ventilation for your 3D printer, you also want to maintain a noise level that doesn’t disturb roommates or neighbors. The Voron 2.4 is a relatively quiet machine thanks to its TMC 2209 silent stepper drivers. When idle, it’s practically silent. However, when in use, it produces around 50 dB of noise. If you choose to enclose the printer by closing panels and doors, the noise drops to 44 dB, though this might affect ventilation.

Once you have all the basics down, you want to evaluate all the unique things the 3D printer brings to the table. For example, the Voron 2.4 has quad gantry leveling, a departure from the usual automatic bed leveling seen in other printers. This unique approach compensates for unevenly heated beds. Additionally, the Voron 2.4 has a custom 3:1 direct drive extruder, which provides three times the feeding filament force into the hotend. This enhancement not only speeds up printing but also enhances its overall reliability.

Learn more about our 3D printer review methodology.

How We Researched Voron 2.4

The Voron 2.4 belongs to the high-performance CoreXY family of 3D printers specializing in high-speed and high-quality FDM prints. These types of printers are known for their reliability, large community support, and relatively high costs. We put the Voron 2.4 through a gauntlet of test prints, checked out its support groups, stress-tested the printer, and much more. 

To get a better idea of its capabilities, we also compared it against many of its competitors like the BLV Cube, Railcore IIZL, RatRig 3, and the Raise3D Pro 2. The Voron 2.4 is unique in that it uses a flying gantry design. Unlike typical 3D printers where the heated bed shifts in at least one direction, in the Voron 2.4, the heated bed remains stationary at the bottom while the printhead maneuvers in the X, Y, and Z axes.

This is definitely research you do not want to skip out on. Making the right choice among high-performance printers is crucial to avoid issues with print quality, setup challenges, and high replacement costs. We’ve delved deep into the land of high-performance 3D printers so you can make a more informed decision on which CoreXY printer to buy.

Voron 2.4 Setup

Assembling the Printer

The Voron 2.4 arrives as a fully DIY kit which requires extensive knowledge of the mechanical and electrical components of 3D printers. Users are required to fully assemble the kit themselves, and the Voron design team has an extremely large and extensive manual for mechanical, electrical, and software installation. 

Despite the thorough (100+ page) manual, however, we used several secondary sources to properly install electrical components, such as the mains-powered heated bed. The Voron 2.4 is not recommended for a user’s first 3D printer as they may be overwhelmed by the complexity of its assembly.

In our assembly of the Aliexpress provided kit, we found that the included solid state relay (SSR) was defective, so we replaced it with a locally sourced SSR. The Voron design team recommends that users locally source the SSR anyway, as that is a critical electrical component, and the quality control of the Aliexpress provided kit is unknown. Assembling the Voron 2.4 took us around 25 hours, including software installation.

The Voron 2.4 uses a large number of 3D-printed parts using ABS. As it is difficult to print filament, many Voron builders may struggle to print these ABS parts. To address this, the Voron design team launched the Print It Forward (PIF) program. The PIF program is a nonprofit initiative by current Voron users to print the ABS parts required for the Voron series of printers and may be reached via their Discord channel. We made use of the PIF program for our Voron 2.4 build and found the community extremely welcoming and supportive to new Voron users.

Leveling the Bed

The Voron 2.4 uses quad gantry leveling to automatically level the printhead to the heated bed. This is done before every print to ensure a perfect first layer every time.

The Voron 2.4 has a large build volume of 350mm (l) x 350mm (w) x 350mm (h). In practice, we found we could use around 320mm of its height.

Its cooling fan was created with ABS and high-temperature filaments in mind. As a result, it has trouble working with the far more common PLA filament we utilized in our tests. We removed the acrylic side panels and doors to boost air flow in order to thoroughly test the Voron 2.4.

The Voron was put to the test in four important areas: detail resolution, z-layer alignment, dimensional accuracy, and print repeatability. In Cura, we utilized the default 0.2mm layer height settings. We then printed several detailed models, including the typical test model Benchy, a Mandalorian figure, and a calibration cube, to test the Voron’s capacity to resolve details. 

Among all the printers we examined, the Voron produced the most impressive results for these detailed prints. Despite its massive and hefty direct drive extruder, the Voron 2.4 exhibited minimal ringing and ghosting, which can be attributed to an anti-ringing technology called input shaper integrated into its Klipper firmware. However, before this function can yield results, users must fine-tune it. How to tune the input shaper is mentioned in the Voron handbook.

We printed a large 300mm tall tube to evaluate the BLV Cube’s z-layer alignment consistency. If the lead screws on a 3D printer aren’t completely straight, they can cause z to wobble. And as expected, we didn’t observe any z artifacts on our 300mm tall tube because the Voron 2.4 has a belt-driven z-axis.

We also printed a 20mm calibration cube 20 times to see if there were any discrepancies between the multiple cubes to test dimensional accuracy and print consistency. The Voron 2.4 was our most dimensionally exact machine, measuring 20.1mm (l) x 20.1mm (w) for our cube. We also found that there were no significant differences in finish or dimensional accuracy between the first and twentieth calibration cubes, indicating that the Voron has exceptional printing consistency.

Setting Up Prints

The Voron 2.4, being a community-designed printer, doesn’t include slicer software like most commercial counterparts. In 2020, the Voron 2.4 experienced a large surge in popularity, and its community grew exponentially. As a result, numerous community profiles have emerged for popular slicer software, with the latest Cura version even featuring a default profile for Voron 2.4. During our testing, we used the Cura default profile.

Sending files to the Voron 2.4 is incredibly easy, as files are transferred wirelessly via the Raspberry Pi Octoprint interface. Once loaded, users can start, stop and monitor their prints using the Octoprint web interface. 

The Octoprint interface is intuitive and quite easy to use. However, compared to the web interface of the Duet 2 WiFi, it does not have the same level of aesthetic polish. Additionally, it does not view well on mobile devices (it does not have a mobile version and displays the desktop interface). There are plugins available to make Octoprint more mobile-friendly.

Noise Levels

The Voron 2.4 is a relatively quiet machine thanks to its TMC 2209 silent stepper drivers. When idle, it remains noiseless since its fans only activate during heating or movement. While in motion and with the acrylic panels and doors removed, it produces around 50 dB of noise. Yet, when those panels and doors are in place, the noise drops to a remarkably quiet 44db, making it among the quietest printers we have tested.

Print Speeds

As a CoreXY 3D printer, the Voron is capable of printing at fast speeds. For example, by default, it prints at a blistering fast 120mm/s. In our tests, the Voron had no issues keeping up with those extremely fast prints and had some of the best-quality prints we produced. With its 3:1 dual drive extruder, it is also capable of printing TPU and other flexibles quickly with a very speedy print speed of 50mm/s.

Voron 2.4 Hardware

The Voron 2.4 is a large format 3D printer with overall dimensions of 520mm (l) x 520mm (w) x 580mm (h), sporting a build volume of 350mm (l) x 350mm (w) x 350mm (h) and weighing in at 20kg. This large machine requires a wide and sturdy table to accommodate its weight. Users may also find they need more than one person to help them move the 3D printer around.

The Voron 2.4 stands out with its distinct build volume of 350mm (l) x 350mm (w) x 350mm (h), which is broader than most other large format printers that usually prioritize slightly taller and more narrow spaces, like 300mm (l) x 300mm (w) x 400mm (h). This unique setup allows users to print slightly wider objects at the cost of height. 

However, it’s important to note that this broader build volume comes with a notable drawback—the Voron 2.4’s construction costs are considerably higher compared to its narrower competitors. Some users have reported successfully building a smaller version with dimensions of 300mm (l) x 300mm (w) x 300mm (h) at almost half the cost of the larger 350mm (l) x 350mm (w) x 350mm (h) variant.

The Voron 2.4 places a large emphasis on aesthetics as it hides its electronics within the base of the printer, routes all of its cables within a series of cable drag chains, and encloses the entire printer in clear and black acrylic. This gives the Voron 2.4 a professional and clean look that is similar to several thousand-dollar professional machines such as the Ultimaker S5 and Raise3D Pro 2. This aesthetic sets it apart from its actual competitors like the BLV Cube, Railcore IIZL, and RatRig 3, as none can really match its polished look.

Safety Highlights

Thermal Runaway Protection

Having the heater lose control and catch fire is one of the most serious problems with 3D printing. Thermal runaway protection is a software function that keeps an eye on the hotend to ensure it doesn’t overheat. This crucial safety feature is enabled on nearly every current 3D printer, and the Voron 2.4 is no exception. If the Voron 2.4 detects a malfunction in the heated bed or hotend, it will turn off the printer, display an error message, and wait for the user to repair and resume it. When the printer’s thermal runaway protection is tripped, the printer’s fan will even spin up to full speed to cool any overheating components.

Cable Management

The Voron 2.4 routes all of its cables within three cable drag chains located around the printer. Apart from improving the printer’s clean aesthetics, this setup also protects the cables and the user—the cable drag chains remove any chances of cables getting caught on moving parts and potentially breaking.

Mains Powered Bed

A mains-powered bed draws power directly from the outlet, which speeds up the heating process significantly. While we usually approach such beds with caution due to safety concerns related to applying 120V or 220V to a touchable surface, proper safety measures can make them viable. To safely implement a mains-powered heated bed, the bed itself must be grounded to a metal frame or ground terminal within the power supply unit. Fortunately, the kit we received includes all the required components to ensure this safety setup. Additionally, our kit is equipped with a thermal fuse that activates if the bed temperature exceeds 110C, instantly cutting off power as a safety precaution.

Full Enclosure

The Voron 2.4 includes acrylic panels that enclose the 3D printer completely. This enclosure offers multiple benefits, such as enabling the printing of filaments that require a closed environment, giving the printer a polished and professional appearance, minimizing noise, and providing safety by preventing contact with hot or moving parts of the printer.

Voron 2.4 Printer Maintenance

Finding Replacement Parts

The Voron 2.4 was designed with easy-to-source parts in mind. As a result, all the essential electrical and mechanical parts can be easily obtained from well-known 3D printer retailers like Matterhackers, Digitmakers, and Spool3D. Additionally, these components are commonly accessible on major marketplaces such as Amazon and AliExpress.

Accessing the Control Board

The Voron 2.4 has all of its electronics mounted on its base. Accessing the control board and other electronics is a simple task — just remove four screws to take off the base panel, revealing all the internal components. Thanks to the spacious base design, there’s ample room to work around the control board, making it easy to replace components.

Features & Upgrades

Quad Gantry Leveling

The flagship feature of the Voron 2 series and what draws users to this 3D printer is its quad gantry leveling ability. With four stepper motors positioned on each corner, the printer physically adjusts itself to align with the heated bed to ensure it is properly leveled. This sets it apart from most automatic bed leveling printers that rely on software to compensate for unevenly heated beds. This feature is especially advantageous for large and wide prints, as a physically leveled bed would yield smoother and flat bottom layers over software-leveled beds.

Out of all printers we have seen and used, only the Railcore and the RatRig 3 features a similar leveling system that physically adjusts the bed to align with the printhead.

Fully Enclosed Print Area

Numerous high-performance filaments like ABS, nylon, and polycarbonate demand a fully enclosed space to counteract warping and potential detachment from the print bed. The Voron 2.4 comes with removable acrylic panels and doors to insulate the build volume, providing hard-to-print filaments with a warm environment for printing.

Flexible Removable Build Plate

The Voron 2.4 kit includes a versatile spring steel construction plate featuring textured PEI on one side and smooth PEI on the other. This flexible plate simplifies the removal of completed 3D prints—users can easily flex the plate, and the prints effortlessly detach. PEI is a reliable print surface, allowing prints to stick well to it when heated.

This flexible spring steel construction plate has a smooth and textured PEI surface that works well with various filament types, too. Smooth PEI is most commonly used for PLA, ABS, nylon, and polycarbonate filaments due to its exceptional adhesion properties. However, it’s not recommended for PETG and TPU since their strong adhesion could harm the build plate. Smooth PEI prints have a smooth and glossy surface on the bottom of the prints.

Because it provides significantly less adhesion, the textured PEI side is excellent for PETG and TPU filaments! The bottom of prints made with the textured PEI has a slightly rough and matte appearance.

3:1 Direct Drive Extruder

A unique 3:1 direct twin drive extruder is included with the Voron 2.4. When compared to a normal single-gear extruder, a 3:1 drive gear ratio extruder has three times the pushing force (torque) needed to feed the filament into the hotend. This enables the Voron 2.4 to print extremely quickly and consistently. The Voron 2.4 can also print flexible filaments like TPU significantly faster than Bowden drive printers thanks to the direct drive extruder.

Hotend Made Entirely of Metal

The hotend of most consumer 3D printers is lined with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Because the plastic degrades quickly and generates poisonous gasses at higher temperatures, PTFE hotels limit the printing temperature to roughly 245-250°C. Printers with a PTFE hotend are unable to print with more exotic materials like polycarbonate and nylon due to their inability to print at higher temperatures. Fortunately, the Voron 2.4 boasts an all-metal hotend. This enables it to reach 280°C, making it suitable for printing exotic materials such as nylon and polycarbonate that demand higher temperatures.

Wireless Connectivity with Octoprint

The Voron 2.4 comes with a Raspberry Pi microcomputer with an Octoprint web server installed. This setup offers great convenience, allowing users to remotely load, start, and monitor 3D prints via a web browser. Additionally, Octoprint’s functionality can be expanded by using plugins created by the 3D printing community. Users can easily add features like camera support or 3D print failure detection to the Voron 2.4 using these plugins if they wish.

Belted Z Axis

Almost every 3D printer uses lead screws to move the printer up and down on the z-axis. It is an accurate, reliable, and inexpensive feature. However, for proper movement, lead screws must be perfectly straight, or it will introduce print artifacts. The Voron 2.4 avoids this issue entirely by using belts instead of lead screws to move the printer.

TMC 2209 Silent Stepper Drivers

The Voron 2.4 features TMC 2209 silent stepper drivers on all its stepper motors, making it very quiet when it’s in motion.

Community Support For Voron 2.4

In 2020, the Voron community experienced a large surge in popularity. In particular, its Discord server is extremely popular and active. Users are highly encouraged to join the Voron discord server for solutions, mods, and upgrades. Additionally, an active presence can be found on Facebook and Reddit subreddits, providing users with multiple avenues for community support.

Final Verdict

The Voron 2.4 is a top performer in our tests. It produced some of the best 3D prints we’ve ever seen at a remarkable speed of 120mm. Its user-friendliness shines through with features like automatic quad gantry leveling and the convenience of the Octoprint web interface.

However, this all comes with a hefty price tag, with kits between $1500-2000. Similarly-specced 3D printers such as the BLV cube and Ratrig3 can be found for much less. Additionally, unlike other community-designed 3D printers, the Voron 2.4 was not designed with mods in mind, and some users may not like the rigidity of a single specced machine.

Still, due to its print quality, reliability, ease of use, and speed, the Voron 2.4 is our favorite FDM printer to date. We would wholeheartedly recommend it to any 3D printer enthusiast who is in the market for a high-performance DIY 3D printer.

Voron 2.4 Technical Specifications

  • Build volume: 350mm (l) x 350mm (w) x 355mm (h)
  • Printer size: 520mm (l) x 520mm (w) x 580mm (h)
  • Weight: 20kg
  • Enclosed print area: Yes
  • Display: Monochrome LCD
  • Drive type: FDM Direct (all metal)
  • Filament capability: PLA, ABS, PETG, TPU, 
  • Connectivity: WiFi
  • Drivers: TMC2209
  • Build Surface: flexible PEI
  • Heated Bed: Yes
  • Bed Leveling: Automatic
  • Nozzle diameter: 0.4mm
  • Maximum hotend temperature: 280 °C
  • Maximum movement speed: 200mm per second
  • Maximum XY accuracy: 0.1mm
  • Minimum Z height: 0.1mm
  • Number of extruders: 1
  • Filament diameter: 1.75mm
  • Supported materials: PLA, ABS, PETG, TPU, 3rd party filament support: yes
  • Operating System: Windows, macOS, Linux
  • Supported Slicers: Prusaslicer, Slic3r, CURA, Simplify3D
  • Supported File Types: STL, OBJ, M3F

Disclaimer
3DGearZone.com is a professional review site that receives compensation from the companies whose products we review. We test each product thoroughly and give high marks to only the very best. We don’t guarantee, however, that our suggestions will work best for each individual or business, so consider your unique needs when choosing products and services. 3DGearZone.com is independently owned and the opinions expressed here are our own. 

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

Sources
1. VoronDesign.com, “Voron Design” Accessed July 26, 2022.

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